Dr.Alexander Wolodtschenko, Dresden, Germany (Alexander.Wolodtschenko@mailbox.tu-dresden.de)
E. Eremchenko, Moscow, Russia (firstname.lastname@example.org)
A. Solomonick, Jerusalem, Israel (email@example.com)
The study session "Neogeo-Semiotic Synthesis" is an interdisciplinary one and based on semiotic, neo-geographic and cartographic traditions.
The themes of the presentations will relate to semio-methodological and neo-geographic aspects in the context of the various disciplines such as geography, geoinformatics, cartography, management, ecology, tourism, archeology, etc.
The study session will be a likely platform for those interested in the modern
breakthrough within the multidisciplinary neogeo-semiotic fields.
1. Abraham Solomonick PhD, Israel
Visuality in Signs (As Exemplified in Cartography)
2. Hansgeorg Schlichtmann (Regina, Canada)
Written language and notations in the map
3. Abraham Solomonick, PhD (Israel)
Accomodating Positions of Applied and General Semiotics in Cartography
4. Eugene Eremchenko (Russia) and Alexander Wolodtschenko (Germany)
New directions of applied semiotics and neogeo-semiotics
5. Semiotische Besonderheiten des Internationalen Atlas "Der große Altai: Natur, Geschichte, Kultur"
Irina Rotanova (Barnaul, Russland)
6. Event-Bildatlanten als semiotisch-mediale Modelle und Produkte Alexander Wolodtschenko (Dresden, Deutschland)
7. Digital Geography: Mining and Mapping Twitter Names Elian Carsenat (France), Evgeny Shokhenmayer (Germany)
8. Tourismusbezogene Transformation der Wissenschaft Golubchikov Juri (Moskau, Russland)
9. Atlassing in der Cloud, Florian Hruby (Mexico) und Alexander Wolodtschenko (Deutschland)
10. Cognitive graphics and images in geography, Massel L.V. (Irkutsk, Russia), Eremchenko E.N.(Moscow, Russia)
11. Cognitive modeling and situational awareness, Massel A.G., Ivanov R.A.(Irkutsk, Russia)
12. Semiotics: from metaontology to metasign, Massel L.V., Kopaygorodsky A.N.(Irkutsk, Russia)
13. Über drei kartosemiotische Wörterbücher, H.Schlichtmann (Kanada) und A.Wolodtschenko (Deutschland)
I. Abraham Solomonick PhD, Israel
Visuality in Signs (As Exemplified in Cartography)
- Visuality in signs is quite different from visuality in ontological reality. In real-life circumstances, we generally understand and believe in what we see and perceive, and this is what is usually meant by visuality. But in semiotic reality, visuality refers to a variety of different kinds of signs – charts, diagrams, formulas, etc. Although signs also possess a kind of visuality that, in the long run, is reduced to sensual perceptions, these perceptions are not of a direct and immediate nature, as the visuality of ontological phenomena is. To arrive at the "visual" effects of signs, we have to jump over some preliminary hurdles: first, we have to know the meanings of the signs that are being used; then, we have to juxtapose these signs with the things they are coding; and, finally, we must apply our conclusions to the material objects denoted by the signs. All three of these stages are of a cognitive character, and they are sometimes performed with the help of visual aids. When this is the case, different types of visuality in ontological vs. semiotic reality are evident: professionals easily overcome these hurdles, but non-professionals, especially young ones, who have little practical background, may have to exert a great deal of effort to try to deal with them, and, even so, often have very little success.
- This is why in semiotic ambiance all sign-systems possess specially devised mechanisms for what I call “releasing the signs in use from excessive abstraction.” All of these mechanisms are adjusted in order to present their sign formulations either in directly concurrent form with "visual reality," or with the help of empirical testing that brings signs close to the objects and phenomena they designate. We will demonstrate this from the history of cartographic systems, which is a good choice, both because it is a very patent example and also because of the revolution cartography is undergoing nowadays. Nonetheless, it is important to bear in mind that such mechanisms exist not only in cartography but in all abstract sign-systems, although their implementations vary from system to system.
- The aim of cartography is to help people orient themselves in space. When people first began developing methods to accomplish this, they used visual signs: they oriented themselves by using what they saw around them (natural signs), by sketching the features of their surroundings (iconic signs), and by explanations employing gestures and speech (language and paralanguage signs). All of these signs were very visual, but they could only be used for orientation in people's immediate surroundings. For long distance orientation, as well as for teaching the younger generations, these signs were insufficient. Because of this, people invented charts of various sorts. Using them enabled orientation vis-a-vis the ground regardless of how far the location was from the user's immediate surroundings. In addition, the charts facilitated searching not only for objects on the earth, but under and above it. As part of the process of developing these cartographic systems, people invented numerous conventional signs (that is, signs that are completely unlike the objects they designate); divided the surface of the Earth into parts based on parallels and meridians; and introduced a variety of other syntactical markings (like wind roses and scales) into charts and other cartographic devices [i]. Such signs have no immediate affinity to the things they denote, but they enable us to approach and investigate a lot of objects that are otherwise beyond our grasps. To do this, we have to learn the meanings of the signs that are used in particular charts (this is the purpose of legends), and utilize this knowledge – initially for intellectual goals, but later also for manifold practical purposes. Our highly developed cartographic systems are a mandatory part of every grade-school curriculum in every country on the planet.
- Of late, satellites and other flying vehicles have allowed us to photograph the Earth from a great distance, enabling us to see images of huge areas, and even the whole of our planet. A wide range of electronic gadgets can now make use of these technologies to create real-life pictures that simultaneously show our current locations and the points to which we want to go, as well as tracing our movements as we approach our destinations. This innovation has almost completely ousted the charts that people previously used for navigation, because it employs signs that closely resemble what we see with our own eyes. That is, it has a higher level of visuality than the older systems had. Millions of people have jumped at the opportunity to utilize this simple and easily readable means of orientation[ii].
- These advances lead us to ask whether this innovation will cause humanity to stop using and generating the charts and other cartographic models whose invention and propagation took so much toil and effort from generations of humans. To this, I answer emphatically that this is by no means the case. For the particular application that I described above, the new system will replace the established cartographic resources, but there will still be numerous cases in which conventional cartography will retain its former stature. Historical, economic, and meteorological maps, and scores of other kinds of charts, will remain in use, and the requirement to study this brilliant kind of human ingenuity will remain in place at schools and universities. When the calculator was invented and came into everyday use, it did not eliminate the study of arithmetic; on the contrary, the study of mathematics became all the more intensive. Cartography will surely follow a similar path.
i. A detailed discussion of this topic can be found in Solomonick, A. Semiotics and Linguistics. Paris, Editions des Ecrivans, 2001, pp. 152 - 159 (available from Amazon)
ii. Eremtchenko, E., and others. Neogeography: Semiotic Perspectives. At: www.neogeography.ru/rus/newss/articles (in Russian)
II. Hansgeorg Schlichtmann (Regina, Canada) <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Written language and notations in the map
(theses for the presentation at the 12th Semiotic Congress)
In a map, written language and (alphanumeric) notations are employed in the margins and the map face. In the margins, as marginal notes, they specify what graphic symbols mean (legend) and provide background knowledge on the map as a whole. In the map face, they inform about mapped places, functioning as labels (with generic meanings) or as toponyms (which, being names, have individual meanings). In the first place, the said entries permit to convey names and exact numerical values, which ordinary graphic means cannot do. Otherwise they often serve as correctives for perceptual shortcomings of the latter. At any rate, graphic entries and written language/notations complement each other. Written language/notations, along with some other kinds of entries, are imported from extra-cartographic domains. Map symbolism – the sign-system type underlying mapping and map use -- is complex in several respects, and the said importation is one of them.
III. Abraham Solomonick, PhD (Israel)
Accomodating Positions of Applied and General Semiotics in Cartography
(theses for the discussion/round table at the 12th Semiotic Congress)
1.My version of the General Semiotics was based on some premeditated principles. One of them said that it should be useful for each branch semiotics, which up to now developed independently leaning only on its mother-science. To verify this point, I collaborated with some branch semiotics, one of which was that of cartography. The results of the collaboration will be discussed in our section.
2.I got in touch with some leading cartographic centers and with some prominent personalities in the field, took part in their conferences, presented my views there and published about half a dozen of articles and interviews in their professional publications. All of them were devoted to the problems of cartography, but through the prism of semiotic approach. Some of them will be discussed in our dispute.
3.The pinnacle of this activity was the corroboration in deciphering the intricacies of the modern cartography after the appearance of pictures instead of charts in the distant photography of the Earth, their semiotic significance and their use and novelty from the semiotic point of view. I found out that our collaboration not only exerted semiotic contribution onto the problems of cartography, but also gave rise to new vistas in semiotics that had evaded me previously, and which I now include in my manual on General Semiotics.
IV. Eugene Eremchenko and Alexander Wolodtschenko
(theses for the poster at the 12th Semiotic Congress)
New directions of applied semiotics and neogeo-semiotics
1) Cartosemiotics, cartosemiotic models and applied semiotics. There are three main types of cartosemiotic models: map-related, map-liked and combined (or cartographic-textual) models. Cartosemiotic as applied semiotics deals mainly with maps and cartographic sign systems. Map-liked (cartoids, satellite imageries, animations, etc.) and combined (atlases, encyclopedias, etc.) models have not yet been sufficiently studied with structural-semiotic positions. The examples of the comparison of structural models related to various atlases and maps.
2) New direction of applied semiotics is the atlas semiotics. Atlas semiotics was formed on the cartosemiotic basis as applied semiotics and investigates various atlases (as semiotic models) with cartographic and non cartographic traditions.
Photo-atlases or illustrated atlases with non cartographic traditions are poorly understood as semiotic sign systems and hybrid ubiquitous knowledge models, e.g., for tourism, museum tours, etc. The examples of photo-atlases are presented for tourism, local history, excursions etc.
3) Neogeo-semiotics aspects of the pre-signs and symbols. Modern ideas of the neogeography semiotics and new geoproducts require critical analysis and review. One of the problems is semiotic explanation of trend to dominate the reduced neogeografic systems and hybrid semiotic models. Neogeography as applied scope of semiotic tools can contribute to a better understanding of general semiotic concepts and models.
V. Rotanova, I.N. (Barnaul, Russland)
Semiotische Besonderheiten des Internationalen Atlas "Der große Altai: Natur, Geschichte, Kultur"
Der Atlas "Der große Altai: Natur, Geschichte, Kultur" wird als ein internationales Projekt von vier Altai-Ländern: Russland, China, Kasachstan und der Mongolei erstellt. Drei Hauptbereiche: Natur, Geschichte und Kultur bilden eine semiotische Architektur des Atlas.
Der Atlas wird als kartenbasierter Atlas konzipiert. Die Methoden der Konstruktion und Nutzung des Kartenzeichensystems sind Gegenstand einer kartosemiotischen Sonderstudie.
VI. Wolodtschenko, Alexander (Dresden, Deutschland)
Event-Bildatlanten als semiotisch-mediale Modelle und Produkte
Die elektronischen Mini-Bildatlanten als semiotische Informationsmodelle bilden eine neue Subklasse von Bildatlanten.
Die eventbezogenen Miniatlanten als neue mediale Produkte ergänzen beliebige thematische Berichte oder Inforgraphiken einer Tages- bzw.
Wochenzeitung oder Zeitschrift und dokumentieren diverse natur- und gesellschaftsbezogene Fakten, Daten und Ereignisse.
Die Event-Bildatlanten als illustrative Miniatlanten für Tabletts und Smartphones bringen in der modernen multimedialen Welt eine neue Atlaskultur hervor, die von professionellen als auch Hobby-Fotografen, Journalisten und Mediendesignern geprägt werden können.
VII. Elian Carsenat (France) and Evgeny Shokhenmayer (Germany)
Digital Geography: Mining and Mapping Twitter Names,
Millions of geo tweets in various languages, discussing anything from ‘hey, I’m here‘ to finance, geopolitics or marketing.
How do we make sense of them? We’ve used NamSor Applied Onomastics software for the name recognition to filter information and produce unique maps of the e-Diasporas.
Names are a Code and contain a lot of information about an individual, but there is no determinism. Human groups of different levels can be recognized through names, but human societies are fractals. Each group can be broken down again and again, from different angles. A first name, a last name, a Twitter handle are part of a person’s identity and may indicate a social intent, the belonging to an ethnic/linguistic group, a geographic origin, beliefs, … however at the finest grain level, every individual is unique and an exception to the group.
VIII. Golubchikov Juri (Moskau, Russland)
Tourismusbezogene Transformation der Wissenschaft
Tourismus und Internet-Dienste wie Google Earth, Virtual Earth, SAS Planet sowie digitale Kommunikations- und Navigationsgeräte haben den Zugang zur Geographie und Kartographie erweitert. In den USA spricht man über die «citizen science», in Russland - über die touristische Wissenschaft.
Internet, Heimatkunde und Massentourismus schließen die breite Masse der Bevölkerung in den Prozess der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis und Bewertung ihrer Ergebnisse ein.
Man kann sagen, dass die Wissenschaft die Stabilität bietet und der Tourismus dieses Wissen erschließt.
IX. Florian Hruby (Mexico) und Alexander Wolodtschenko (Deutschland)
Atlassing in der Cloud
Karten und Altanten hatten in der analogen Kartographie zumindest drei
Funktionen: Sie dienten erstens der Visualisierung raumbezogener Daten, zweitens der Analyse der dieser Daten und drittens als Speicher der dargestellten Information. Mit dem Aufkommen geographischer Informationssysteme (GIS) in den 1960 Jahren verteilten sich diese
Funktionen: Daten wurden nun in Geodatenbanken gespeichert und zunehmend komplexere Analysen von Rechenalgorithmen der GIS ausgeführt, so daß der Karte - in gedruckter oder digitaler Form - vor allem die Aufgabe der Datenvisualisierung blieb. Diese funktionale Teilung hat sich mit Verbreitung des Internets auch räumlich fortgesetzt. Befanden sich in frühen GIS-Arbeitsplätzen sowohl Daten als auch Datenverarbeitung und - visualisierung, sowie auch die Kartograph/innen selbst am gleichen Ort, so finden sich diese Komponenten heute oft auf verschiedene, miteinander vernetzte Computer verteilt. Für diese Verteilung von Diensten und deren internet-basierten Zugriff hat sich der englische Begriff der cloud etabliert. Der Beitrag möchte zeigen, welche neuen Publikationsformate die cloud für die Kartographie im Allgemeinen, und für die Atlaskartographie im besonderen hervorgebracht hat, und wie diese neuen Medien mit (meta-) semiotischen Variablen beschrieben und strukturiert werden können.
X. Massel L.V. (Irkutsk Russia), Eremchenko E.N.(Moscow, Russia)
Cognitive graphics and images in geography
Cognitive graphics emerged in the 1990s as a method for the subject to perceive the information about system through the graphic images. Method originally proposed of cognitive graphics for visualizing mathematical expressions - for example, solutions of differential equations [Zenkin 1991]. Subsequently, the method was further developed in the semantic modeling - first of all in cognitive modeling. Cognitive models are presented in graphical form, namely in the form of cognitive maps, which define the basic concepts of the subject area and cause and effect relationship between them [Trahtengerts 1998].
In fact, cognitive graphics anticipated and encouraged the transfer of the focus of attention in geographic systems from vector, iconic image on a pixel (eg, remote sensing data) - in geographical science (geography), this threshold was crossed in 2005, when the geoservice Google Earth was appeared.
The idea of of cognitive graphics is to shift the focus of perception of the situation subject with conscious treatment of the signs on the visual
(image) thinking using unconscious resource through the use of direct, not indirect iconic conventions of graphic images.
Similarly evolved representation of geographic information from paper charts to electronic maps, geographic information systems (GIS) and, ultimately, to network services based on the use of raster images. So we can say that in the GIS was implemented in practice the method of cognitive graphics - but it was administered through trial and error, ad hoc. In fact, geographers used the approach of "cognitive graphics", but doing it instinctively and unconsciously. It seems that it is advisable to engage the introduction of method of cognitive graphics in the geographical science consistently and systematically.
Actual solution to the problem consisting of two tasks: first, to scientifically substantiate an accomplished shift in the geographical science from GIS to raster geoservices; secondly, analyzed the experience of using the cognitive graphics in various subject areas, to draw conclusions about the semiotic component of this process.
Appears that for solving these problems it is advisable to introduce a system of meta-concepts that will explain one of the paradoxes neogeography [Eremchenko 2008], which consists in a conscious rejection of signs at all or in the transition to the use of simpler and less abstract signs to represent the geographical situation.
In semiotics proposed to introduce concepts 1) about "zero sign" - an analogue of zero in mathematics - as quantum information, endowed with the content, but not having a symbolic form; 2) the "non-sign" as a possible carrier of information in the unsigned form; 3) the "meta-sign" as combines of conventional signs and "non-signs." Semiotics, being the science of signs, does not explain what preceded signs. Introduction of the proposed concepts will help to put this task.
XI. Massel A.G., Ivanov R.A.(Irkutsk, Russia)
Cognitive modeling and situational awareness.
Cognitive modeling can be considered as a synthesis cognitive graphics and semiotics. On the one hand, the cognitive model is presented in graphical form (in the form of directed graphs, called cognitive maps), and has elements of cognitive graphics. The purpose of constructing cognitive maps
- identifying causal relationships between concepts (basic concepts) subject area. In particular, cognitive maps are used by the authors to simulate energy security risks that may adversely affect the level of security of society and / or the individual's energy resources in the required amount and quality [Massel A.2010].
On the other hand, cognitive maps used sign representation of the characteristics of relationships between concepts. In the simplest case, the values +1 and -1, defining the nature of causality, by a complication of cognitive maps can be administered weights with positive or negative sign.
Situational awareness is based on the creation and use of "sensory image", describing the situation, which should be taken operational or strategic decisions. Expert 3D-visualization facilitates the perception of images
[Eremchenko 2009]. At the same time, the expert needs a tool that could
integrate figurative and symbolic (semiotic) perception. In particular, can be created a tools for integration of cognitive modeling tools [Massel A., Kopaygorodsky, Pascal 2012] and 3D-visualization [Ivanov 2013]. A tools creating can contribute, on the one hand, the further integration of semiotics and graphic images, and on the other - to become one of network-centric the components of software in the justification and decision support, for example in energetics [Massel L., Ivanov, Massel A. 2013].
XII. Massel L.V., Kopaygorodsky A.N.(Irkutsk, Russia)
Semiotics: from metaontology to metasign
According to [Massel L.V., Eremchenko E.N. "Cognitive graphics and images in geography"], proposed to expand the semiotics concepts by introduction the metasigns. Let us explain this concept on the example of ontologies.
In philosophy, ontology – is partition, studying the fundamental principles of being, its essence and the most common categories, principles, structures and patterns. Ontology in computer science has been introduced to represent the declarative knowledge and is the "specification of conceptualization" according to the classical definition of Gruber (1993).
Initially ontology is encouraged to submit in graphical form. In fact, this is a "image" of the knowledge domain, which describes the knowledge domain basic concept and the relationships between them. The next step is specification. It is nothing like ontology representation in the signed form, which should be understandable and human and computer.
The metaontology concept is used widely in ontological modeling by authors [Massel L.,Vorozhtsova, Kopaygorodsky, Makagonova, Skripkin 2013]. The metaontology is a description of the knowledge domain at a higher level of abstraction, in aggregate form. Introduction of several meta-level for different levels of generalization is perhaps.
The process of constructing metaontology can be used in semiotics to introduce the concept of "metasign" is appears. Introduce different levels of representation of characters, each of which has a higher level of abstraction is proposed. In fact, metasign it is nothing like "convolution" signed information. Thus, we can consider the ontology on the one hand as an image presentation knowledge (in graphical form) and on the other as a signed, a conceptual representation of knowledge (by one of ontology specification languages).
In studies of energy systems combined use of ontologies, cognitive models and 3D-visualization has been proposed and used by authors [Massel L.
2010; Massel A., Kopaygorodsky, Kurganskaya, Ivanov, Pyatkova 2013]. It seems that the introduction metasign can be on the one hand extend the semiotics concepts and on the other allow to use metasign designations for metaontology.
XIII. H.Schlichtmann (Kanada) und A.Wolodtschenko (Deutschland)
Über drei kartosemiotische Wörterbücher
Im Rahmen der Aktivitäten der ICA Kommission "Theoretische Kartographie" (1999-2011) unter Leitung von A.Wolodtschenko (Vorsitzender) und H.Schlichtmann (Stellvertretender Vorsitzender) wurden die folgenden drei kartosemiotischen Wörterbücher herausgegeben:
1. Wolodtschenko, A.(2005, 2008, 2009): Kartosemiotik. Dresden. (Russisch).
2. Wolodtschenko, A., Schewtschenko, V., Poliakowa, N.(2009): Mini-Wörterbuch.
Kartosemiotik. Dresden. (Ukrainisch).
3. Schlichtmann, H.(2011): Cartosemiotics. A short dictionary. ICA 2011, Regina.
Diese drei lexikalischen Produkte ergänzen eine Studie "Map semiotics around the world" der ICA Working Group "Map Semiotics" (Hrsg. H.Schlichtmann, 1999).
Die Wörterbücher richten sich an Kartographen und Nichtkartographen, Theoretiker und Praktiker, an alle, die sich für kartographische Semiotik interessieren.